Diseases & conditions A-Z List
Diseases & Conditions A-Z List - «B»:
Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds, or they may live in improperly canned or preserved food.
Clostridium botulinum is found in soil and untreated water throughout the world. It produces spores that ...
Bowel incontinence is the loss of bowel control, leading to an involuntary passage of stool. This can range from occasionally leaking a small amount of stool and passing gas, to completely losing control of bowel movements.
Urinary incontinence, a separate topic, is the inability to control the pas...
Bowel transit time
Bowel transit time refers to how long it takes for the food to move from the mouth to the anus.
This article discusses the medical test used to determine bowel transit time.
How the Test is Performed
You will be asked to swallow two gelatin capsules filled with carmine red or another food dye. You ...
Bowlegs is a condition in which the knees remain wide apart when a person stands with the feet and ankles together.
Infants are born bowlegged because of their folded position in the uterus. The infant's bowed legs begin to straighten once the child starts to walk and the legs begin to bear ...
Brachial palsy in newborns
Brachial palsy is a loss of movement or weakness of the arm that occurs when the collection of nerves around the shoulder are damaged during birth.
This bundle of nerves is called the brachial plexus.
The nerves of the brachial plexus can be injured during a difficult delivery from:
Brachial plexopathy is pain, decreased movement, or decreased sensation in the arm and shoulder due to a nerve problem.
Brachial plexus dysfunction (brachial plexopathy) is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the brachial plexus, an area where a nerve bundle fr...
The brachial plexus is a group of spinal nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These nerves allow the arm, forearm, and hand to move and feel things.
Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems. Symptoms may include loss of...
A brain abscess is a collection of immune cells, pus, and other material in the brain, usually from a bacterial or fungal infection.
Brain abscesses commonly occur when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain. Swelling and irritation (inflammation) develops in response. Infected brain cel...
Brain aneurysm repair
An aneurysm is a weak area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out. It can leak blood and cause a stroke or bleeding along the surface of the brain (also called a subarachnoid hemorrhage).
See also: Aneurysm in the brain
Your doctor will decid...
Brain aneurysm repair - discharge
You had a brain aneurysm. An aneurysm is a weak area in the wall of a blood vessel that bulges or balloons out. Once it reaches a certain size, it has a high risk of bursting. It can leak blood and cause a stroke or bleeding along the surface of the brain (also called a subarachnoid hemorrhage).
A brain herniation is when brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood vessels are moved or pressed away from their usual position in the head.
A brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most often the result of brain swelli...
Brain injury - discharge
Your friend or loved one was in the hospital after a serious brain injury. First, doctors and nurses provided treatment to prevent any further damage to the brain, and to help the heart, lungs, and other important parts of the body.
After the person became stable, doctors and nurses did tests and tr...
Brain PET scan
A brain positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for disease or injury in the brain.
Unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans, which reveal the structure of the brain, a PET scan shows how...
Brain radiation - discharge
When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through some changes.
Two weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might have changes in your skin. Your skin and mouth may turn red, your skin might start to peel or get dark, or your skin may itch.
Most of these symptoms will go away ...
Brain surgery treats problems in the brain and the structures around it through an opening (craniotomy) in the skull (cranium).
The hair on part of the scalp is shaved. The scalp is cleansed and prepared for surgery. An incision is made through the scalp. The incision may be made behind...