Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «B»:
Black plague: In 14th-century Europe, the victims of the
"black plague" had bleeding below the skin (subcutaneous hemorrhage) which made
darkened ("blackened") their bodies. Black plague can lead to "black
death" characterized by gangrene of the fingers, toes, and nose. Black plague is
caused by a b...
Blackhead: A familiar term for what is medically called an open comedo. A comedo, the
primary sign of acne, consists of a dilated (widened) hair follicle filled with
keratin squamae (skin debris), bacteria, and sebum (oil).
An open comedo has a wide opening to the skin and is capped with a blacken...
Blackwell, Elizabeth: (1821-1910) The first woman to receive a medical degree from an accredited American college. Blackwell was born in Bristol, England. Her father was a nonconformist, liberal, and abolitionist. In 1832 with her family, she immigrated to Cincinnati, Ohio. Blackwell decided to beco...
Bladder: Any pouch or other flexible enclosure that can hold liquids or gases but usually refers to the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine -- the urinary bladder. The kidneys filter waste from the blood and produce urine, which enters the bladder through two tubes called ureters. Ur...
Bladder cancer: A common form of cancer that begins in the lining of the bladder as a superficial tumor (carcinoma in situ). The most common warning sign is blood in the urine. If there is enough blood to color the urine it may range from slightly rusty to deep red. Other symptoms may be pain during...
Bladder cancer risks
Bladder cancer risks: Smoking is a major risk factor.
Cigarette smokers develop bladder cancer 2-3 times more often than do nonsmokers. Quitting
smoking reduces the risk of bladder cancer, lung cancer, several other types of cancer,
and a number of other diseases as well. Workers in some occupations...
Bladder catheter, indwelling
Bladder catheter, indwelling: A flexible plastic tube (a catheter) inserted into the bladder that remains ("dwells") there to provide continuous urinary drainage.
The principal type of indwelling bladder catheter is the "Foley" which has a balloon on the bladder end. After the Foley catheter is ins...
Bladder infection: Infection of the urinary bladder. Some people are at more risk for bladder and other urinary tract infections (UTIs) than others. Women are at greater risk than men. One woman in five develops a UTI during her lifetime. Not everyone with a UTI has symptoms. Common symptoms include...
Bladder inflammation: Inflammation of the urinary bladder. Also called cystitis. Can be due to infection from bacteria that ascend the urethra (the canal from the outside) to the bladder. Symptoms include a frequent need to urinate, often accompanied by a burning sensation. As cystitis progresses, ...
Bladder pain: Pain from the urinary bladder. Among the symptoms and signs of bladder infection are:
feelings of pain, pressure and tenderness around the bladder, pelvis, and perineum (the area between the anus and vagina or anus and scrotum), which may increase as the bladder fills and decrease as ...
Bladder, overactive: A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency, an immediate unstoppable need to urinate. It is a form of urinary incontinence (the unintentional loss of urine) and affects about 1 in 11 adults, particularly older adults. Treatment m...
Blade bone: Familiar term for the scapula, also called the shoulder blade or wing bone, the flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder....
Blalock-Taussig operation: A pioneering heart operation named after the American surgeon Alfred Blalock (1899-1964) and the pediatric cardiologist Helen B. Taussig (1898-1986).
Dr. Taussig designed and Dr. Blalock carried out the first "blue-baby" operation to treat a child born with a previously...
BLAST: Abbreviation for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, a computer program that identifies homologous genes in different organisms (such as worms, the fruit fly, mice, and humans). Homologous genes are genes in different species that share similar structures and functions.
A surprisingly large p...
Blast phase: Refers to advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia. In
this phase, the number of immature, abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and
blood is extremely high. Also called blast crisis....