Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «E»:
Encephalopathy: Disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain. In
general, encephalopathy is manifested by an altered mental state that is
sometimes accompanied by physical changes. Although numerous causes of
encephalopathy are known, the majority of cases arise from infection, liver
Encephalopathy, mitochondrial (MELAS)
Encephalopathy, mitochondrial (MELAS): MELAS is the acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Strokelike episodes.
MELAS is a form of dementia. It is caused by mutations in the genetic material (DNA) in the mitochondria. While most of our DNA is in the chromosomes in the cell nu...
Enchondromatosis: A condition characterized by multiple enchondromas -- benign masses of cartilage growing within bones. The enchondromas can deform and shorten a limb and predispose to a fracture. The condition can be caused by a mutation in the gene for the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR1). Al...
Encopresis: Inability to control the elimination of
stool (fecal incontinence). Encopresis can have a variety of causes,
including inability to control the anal sphincter muscle or
gastrointestinal problems, particularly chronic diarrhea and Crohn's
disease. Several neurological disorders are al...
End stage: The last phase in the course of a progressive disease. As in end-stage liver disease, end-stage lung disease, end-stage renal disease, end-stage cancer, etc. The term "end stage" has come to replace "terminal" because somehow "end stage" seems more scientific and less despairing than "ter...
End-of-life assistant: See: Doula (the second meaning)....
End-of-life companion: See: Doula (the second meaning)....
End-of-the-road disease: Guinea worm disease, a parasitic illness caused by infection with the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis), the largest parasite known to plague people. Guinea worm disease is also known as Dracunculiasis. It is called end-of-the-road disease because it is not seen in the bi...
End-stage renal disease
End-stage renal disease: ESRD. Chronic irreversible renal failure....
Endarterectomy: An operation to clean out an artery and restore normal blood flow through the artery. An endarterectomy is basically a "Rotorooter" procedure. It removes diseased material from the inside of an artery, and also removes any occluding atheromatous deposits, the aim being to leave a sm...
Endemic: Present in a community at all times but in relatively low frequency. Something that is endemic is typically restricted or peculiar to a locality or region.
For example, malaria is endemic in some areas of Africa. And traffic in illicit drugs is endemic in some neighborhoods.
Endemic typhus: Murine typhus, an acute infectious
disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic
typhus, caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia typhi (mooseri), transmitted to
humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis). The animal reservoir includes rat...
Endep: See: Amitriptyline....
Endocannabinoid: A marijuana-like substance. "Marijuana-like substances (endocannabinoids)... act at specific receptors on the blood vessel wall to produce vasodilation...." (NIH News Advisory). Endocannabinoid is abbreviated EC....
Endocardial: Pertaining to the endocardium, the inside lining of the heart....