Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «I»:
Islet cell cancer
Islet cell cancer: A rare but highly treatable type of pancreatic cancer that begins in the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin and other hormones. Islet cell cancer can cause the pancreas to produce too much insulin or other hormones. When this happens, the patient may feel weak or dizzy and...
Islet cell carcinoma
Islet cell carcinoma: See: Islet cell cancer....
Islet cell tumor
Islet cell tumor: See: Islet cell cancer....
Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans: Known as the
insulin-producing tissue, the islets of Langerhans do more than that.
of specialized cells in the pancreas that make and secrete hormones.
after the German pathologist Paul Langerhans (1847-1888), who
in 1869, these cells si...
Iso-: Equal, like, or similar. Iso- is much used in medicine and science as, for example, in isotonic solution (a solution that has the same salt concentration as cells and blood), isotope (a form of a chemical element with the same atomic number as another element but having a different atomic mass...
Isocellular: Composed of cells of the same size and type. Isocellular is a Greek-Latin hybrid term compounded from the Greek iso- meaning "equal or like" + the Latin cellula, the diminutive of cella, a storeroom....
Isochromosome: An abnormal chromosome with two identical arms due to duplication of one arm and loss of the other arm. Isochromosomes are found in some girls with Turner
syndrome, patients with the Pallister-Killian syndrome, and some tumors....
Isochromosome 17q: An abnormal chromosome 17 with two identical long (q) arms due to duplication of the
long arm and loss of the short arm. Isochromosome 17q
is the most common isochromosome in cancer. It plays an important role in tumor development and progression. Hematologic malignancies such ...
Isodisomy: Remarkable situation where both chromosomes in a pair
are from one parent and neither from the other. Isodisomy causes some birth defects and,
we suspect, plays a role in cancer. Also called uniparental disomy. ...
Isoflavone: A type of plant estrogen (phytoestrogen) found chiefly in soybeans....
Isoform: A protein that has the same function as another protein but which is encoded by a different gene and may have small differences in its sequence. For example, transforming factor beta (TGF-B) exists in three versions, or isoforms (TGF-B1, TGF-B2, and TGF-B3), each of which can set off a sign...
Isolate: A group in which mating is always between members of the
group. For example, the Amish. ...
Isoleucine: An amino acid, one of the 20 building blocks of protein. A dietary essential amino acid, isoleucine is needed for optimal growth in childhood. It is one of the three branched-chain amino acids. Symbol: Ile....
Isometric exercise: Exercise involving muscular contractions without movement of the involved parts of the body. Isometric exercise is one method of muscular exercise. In contrast, isotonic exercise occurs when a contracting muscle shortens against a constant load, as when lifting a weight.
Isometropia: The condition in which both eyes have equal refractive power. If, for example, one eye is myopic (nearsighted), so is the other. Or if one eye is hyperopic (farsighted), so is the other. Or both eyes may have normal refractive power.
The term "isometropia" is made up of three parts f...